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1. THE PRESENT


1.1. Present Simple



Básico 1:
Unit 3A
present simple + and -
verb phrases
third person -s
Unit 3B
present simple ?
jobs
/ɜ:/

Básico 2:
Unit 1B
present simple
describing people: appearance and personality
final -s / -es
Looking for a partner
Dates
Who knows you better?


- The present simple is used to refer to habitual actions or routine actions:
Many people work from 8.00a.am. to 3.00p.m.
My father leaves home at 7.30a.m.

- The present simple is also used to refer to facts that are always true:
Rivers flow to the sea.
Water boils at 100ºC.

- Adverbs of frequency and time expresions used with present simple verbs:
· always, hardly ever, never, occasionally, often, rarely, sometimes, usually, ...
· everyday / week / year, etc., every so often, most weekends, twice a week, ...

The shops in our neighborhood always close at 8.30p.m.
I never get up before 7.00a.m.
He wears jeans everyday.





1.2. Present Continuous



Básico 1:
Unit 5B
present continuous
verb phrases (play), (see / look at / watch), (say / speak / talk / tell), (fun / funny), (take / get), (do / make), free time activities, hobbies
/ŋ/
Unit 5C
present simple or present continuous?
the weather and seasons
places in London

Básico 2:
Unit 1C
present continuous
clothes, prepositions of place
/ə/ and /ɜ:/
Describing a picture
Describing a portrait


Intermedio 1:
Unit 1A
present simple / continuous; action- and non-action verbs
food and cooking
long and short vowel sounds
Food and eating; restaurants
Food and eating; interview
Mood food


· The present continuous is used to refer to situations that are happening right now or at present.
Tom is cooking lunch at the moment. Could you call him back later, please?
I'm reading Harry Potter this week.

· Time expressions used with present continuous verbs:
at present, at the moment, currently, now, this week, today, ...

· Stative verbs are verbs that are not normally used in the continuous form:
- verbs referring to opinions:
agree, believe, disagree, expect, hope, know, realize, think, understand, ...
- verbs referring to feelings:
dislike, fear, hate, like, love, regret, respect, trust, ...
- verbs referring to being:
appear, seem, exist, consist of, look, mean, resemble, ...
- verbs referring to having:
own, belong, contain, hold, possess, have, ...
- verbs referring to senses:
feel, hear, taste, see, smell, ...

Many of these stative verbs can also be used to refer to actions (and can be used in the continuous form):
STATIVE VERBS

ACTION VERBS

I have three brothers.
I'm having a shower.
She expects to get that job.
She's expecting a baby.


Intermedio 2:
· You can use always with present continuous verbs to mean "again and again" or "too frequently".
I'm always losing my keys.





2. THE PAST


2.1. Past simple


Básico 1
Unit 7A
past simple of be: was / were
word formation: paint - painter
sentence stress
Unit 7B
past simple: regular verbs
past time expressions
-ed endings
Unit 7C
past simple: irregular verbs
go, have, get
sentence stress
Unit 8A
past simple: regular and irregular
irregular verbs
past simple verbs

Básico 2
Unit 2A
past simple: regular and irregular verbs
holidays
regular verbs: -ed endings
Your last holiday
Two people's holidays
Perfect place and weather

We use it when we want to refer to an action or event which is finished and:
- took place at a specific time and place in the past:
Tom went to Italy in 2010.

- took place over a specific period in the past:
They lived in France between 2005 and 2010.

- was habitual during a specific period in the past.
When Jane lived in Rome, she had lunch at about 12.30pm



2.2. Past continuous


Básico 2:
Unit 2B
past continuous
prepositions of time and place: at, in, on
sentence stress
Talking about photographs
A girl's story
History

We use it to indicate:
- a continuous event in the past (which may or may not be unfinished):
Jane was working with his father when I first met her.

- a temporary event in the past which was in progress before another event took place:
I'll always remember what I was doing when the thunderstorm hit our house.

- an event which started before another event in the past and continued:
When Sam turned up, most of the other guests were already leaving the party.

- simultaneous, continuous actions inthe past:
While I was making the dinner, my husband was laying the table.

- repeated actions occurring over a period of time in the past:
I was always arguing with my husband before I got the divorce.



2.3. Present perfect simple


Básico 2:
Unit 4A
present perfect + yet, just, already
housework, make or do?
/j/ and /dʒ/

Teenage carers
Annoying habits
Unit 4B
present perfect or past simple? (1)
shopping
c and ch
Questionnaire
Do you wear everything you have bought?
The style
Unit 5B
superlatives (+ever+present perfect)
describing a town or city
word and sentence stress
Capital cities
Tests in London
Capital cities
Unit 9B
present perfect + for and since
phobias and words related to fear
sentence stress
Questionnaire revising tenses
Three phobias
Scared of spiders. Take this pill.
Unit 9C
present perfect or past simple? (2)
biographies
word stress, /ɔ:/
Talking about an oldere person
//Top Sounds//
Like father like son

Intermedio 1:
Unit 2A
present perfect and past simple
money
the letter o
Are you a spender of a saver?; money and business
Are you a spender or a saver?; six people answer
Are you a spender or a saver?; The millionaire with a secret
Unit 2B
present perfect + for / since; present perfect continuous
strong adjectives: exhausted, amazed, etc.
sentence rhythm, stress on strong adjectives
How long have you ...?
a trip; a challenge
TV presenter's Amazon challenge

Intermedio 2:
Unit 5A
present perfect simple
television
/w/, /v/, and /b/
Persuading others to agree with you
Interview with some writers
All in one sitting

We use it when we want to talk about:
- an event that started in the past, continues in the present and may continue into the future:
I have been married for fifteen years.

- a recent event in the past that has relevance to the present:

- an event that happened in the past without saying when it happened, because we don't consider this is important:
Have you seen Tom?
I have been to Italy twice.

- an event that happened in the past but in unfinished time, with expressions like today, this month, this year, etc.
I didn't see Jane last month, but I have been out with her five times this month.




2.4. Present perfect continuous


Intermedio 2:
Unit 5B
present perfect continuous
the country
vowel sounds; sentence stress
Living in the country/city
Living in the country and in the city
From the city to the country (and goping back)

Avanzado 1:
· Unit 05: Sports and interests
· talk about what you do in your free time· talk about how fit you are· talkd about lucky escapes· check you heard things correctly
· should(n't) have, could(n't) have, would(n't) have· present perfect continuous and simple
· health and fitness· football and life· lucky escapes
· sport - you've gotta love it!
· unusual interests· the mad uncle
· checking what you heard

We use it:
- to emphasize the continuity and durantion of the event:
I have been living in London since I arrived in 2004.

- to indicate that a continuous activity (finished or unfinished) in the recent past is responsible for a present situation:
He is not crying. He has been peeling onions.


Note: There are some verbs that can be in the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous tense with no change of meaning, although the continuous form is often preferred:
live, wait, drive, smoke, work, stay, study, rain.



2.5. Past perfect simple


Intermedio 2:
Unit 9B
uses of the past perfect
weddings
sentence stress
Talking about a wedding
W. S. Maugham

We use it to indicate a past event or situation which occurred before another past event or situation.
I had been awake for a while before the alarm rang.
My father had already left when I arrived home.

NOTE: Sometimes, a time conjunction (before, when, ...) replaces the past perfect to show which of the two past events occured first. And in this case, both events can be in the past simple tense:
Tom phoned her before she left.



2.5. Past perfect continuous


Avanzado 2:
· Unit 13: Life Events
· describe major life events in more detail
· report facts you are not a hundred per cent sure of
· discuss gossip and news about people (3)
· complain about annoying habits
· The past perfect simple and continuous (2)
· be always -ing / wish and would
· Life events (collocations) (1)
· Birth, Marriage and Death
· Avoiding Conflicts
· Catching up with News and Gossip
· Key Life Events around the World
· Showing Uncertainty (5)

We use it when we want to emphasize the continuity and duration of an event:
Jane had been trying to find a job for months before she was offered her present one.



2.6. Participle clauses


They contain a present participle (e.g. driving), a past participle (e.g. driven) or a perfect participle (e.g. having driven).

We use it:
- to indicate two events happening at the same time. It can replace a time clause:
Walking down the Fifth Avenue on Monday, I saw Jane.
It replaces: As / When / While I was walking ...

- to indicate a reason, and it can replace a reason clause:
Not understanding my teacher's questions, I was unable to give her an answer.
It replaces: Because / Since I didn't understand ...
Having spent my savings on the house, I couldn't afford our holidays.
It replaces: Because / Since I had spent ...

NOTE: The subject of the participle must also be the subject of the other verb. It is not possible to say "Making the dinner, someone knocked on the door."




3. THE FUTURE


3.1. Be going to


Básico 1:
Unit 10B
be going to (plans), future time expressions
holidays
sentence stress
Unit 10C
be going to (predictions)
verb phrases
the letters oo
Revise and Check
9 & 10
Future simple vs. Present continuous



Básico 2:
Unit 3A
be going to (plans and predictions)
airports
sentence stress and fast speech

Travel plans
Airports

It's used to talk about:
- intentions, plans or resolutions:
I'm going to get a new job after holidays.
What are you going to do when you leave university?

- predictions based on present evidence or knowledge:
My nose is tickling. I'm going to sneeze.
My brother is going to have a baby.


3.2. Will


Básico 2:
Unit 6A
will / won't (predictions)
opposite verbs
'll, won't
A positive thinker
Positive thinking
A pessimist
Unit 6B
will / won't (decisions, offers, promises)
verb + back
word stress: two-syllable verbs
Making a promise

A promise

Intermedio 2:
Unit 4A
future forms: will / shall and going to
rubbish and recycling
/i/, /ai/, and /ei/
Talking about waste on earth
Freeganism
Mobiles and recycling

The will future is used to talk about:
- future facts: The sun will rise at 6.00 tomorrow morning.
- predictions or expectations: I expect Tom and Jane will be late again.
- instant decisions about the immediate future: The phone's ringing. I will answer it.
- offers: I will take you to the airport if you like.
- stong intentions: When my father retires, my parents will definitely travel abroad for a few months.



3.3. Present Continuous with a future intention


Básico 2:
Unit 3B
present continuous (future arrangements)
verbs + prepositions e.g. arrive in
sounding friendly

Facebook friends
Flight details

Intermedio 1:
Unit 1B
future forms: present continuous, going to, will/ won't
family, adjectives of personality
sentence stress, word stress, adjective endings
Family; birth order
Radio programme; birth order
Younger brother or only child

The present continuous is used to refer to future actions or events which have already been arranged.
We are spending the summer with our friends in Italy.


3.4. Future continuous

(will + be + -ing)

Avanzado 2:
· Unit 16: Business
· explain why you are phoning
· be more polite in business contexts
· pronounce email addresses and websites
· talk about markets, companies and products more fluently
· The future continuous
· Expressing necessity and ability
· Reasons for Phoning
· Building up a Business
· Business Collocations
· Ten Characteristics of Successful People
· The Green Tourism Guru
· I'm Just Phoning to ...
· Dream and Achieve
· Using "would" to be Polite

The future continuous is used to talk about:
- events or actions that will be in progress at a specific time in the future.
I will be travelling to Italy this time tomorrow.

- predicted or expected trends.
People will be living in the moon in the twenty-second century.



3.5. The future perfect simple

(will + have + past participle)

Avanzado 2:
· Unit 10: Socialising
· describe how people celebrate events
· suggest different times / places to meet
· deal with awkward social situations
· start and end different kinds of converstions
· The future perfect
· Question tags
· Making Mistakes
· Talking about parties
· Watch What You Say!
· Going out to Celebrate
· Starting Converstions
· Arranging to meet

The future perfect simple is used to talk about:
- actions or events that will already be completed by a particular time in the future:
I will have left university and started to work by the year 2020.

Note: Shall is sometimes used instead of will after I and we.
We shall have forgotten about the accident in a few days.


3.6. The future perfect continuous

(will + have + been + -ing)

The future perfect continuous is used to talk about:
- the continuous nature of actions and events in the future:
We will have been living here for two years on Monday.


3.7. Present simple


It's used to talk about scheduled, timetabled or fixed events:
The class starts at 5.00pm tomorrow morning.


3.8. be (just) about to + infinitive


It's used to talk about actions or events which we expect to happen in the immediate future:
We would better hurry - the plain is just about to leave.


3.9. be on the point of + -ing


It also refers to the immediate future:
I'm on the point of going out. Could you come back later, please?


3.10. be likely / unlikely to + infinitive


It's used to refer to probable or improbable actions or events:
We are likely / unlikely to see Tom tomorrow.


3.11. be bound to + infinitive


It's used to refer to actions or events which you think are certain to happen:
The police are bound to discover who broke in eventually.





4. GERUNDS and INFINITIVES


Básico 2:
Unit 7A
uses of the infinitive with to
verbs + infinitive: try to, forget to, etc.
weak form of to, linking

A first meeting
Your partner's parents
Unit 7B
uses of the gerund (verb + -ing)
verbs + gerund
the letter i
Singing
Singing school


Intermedio 1:
Unit 8B
gerunds and infinitives
work
word stress
Asking and answering questions about workPresent your product to the Dragons
Two special products from Dragons' Den
In the Dragons' Den

Intermedio 2:
Unit 7B
verb patterns (infinitives)
live entertainment
/ɔː/, /3ː/ and /e/; words with two pronuncaitions
Talking about staying in or going out
Listening to a radio review
Reading about a famous game



5. THE PASSIVE


Básico 2:
Unit 10A
passive
verbs: invent, discover, etc.
/ʃ/, -ed, sentence stress
Passives quiz
Radio programme - //Inventions//
Did you know...?

Intermedio 1:
Unit 6A
passives (all tenses)
cinema
sentence stress
The Cinema interview
Interview
You are standing in the place where...

Intermedio 2:
Unit 8B
the passive; impersonal you
history
the letters ar
Local history
Describing buildings
A guided tour

Avanzado 2:
· Unit 14: Banks and Money
· deal with banks
· apologise and explain problems in formal settings
· use descriptive literary language
· express regrets
· passives
· wish
· Banks and Money
· Metaphor
· The Magic Moneybag (1)
· Money-Related Problems
· The Magic Moneybag (2)
· A Debate about the Lottery
· Apologising and Offering Explanations




6. REPORTED SPEECH


Intermedio 1:
Unit 8A
reported speech: sentences and questions
shopping, non building
the letters ai
Shopping questionnaireWhen did you complain?
Radio consumer programme about bad service
The King of Complainers

Intermedio 2:
Unit 9A
reported speech
word families
word stress
I have got a good memory
The Story Corps

Avanzado 2:
· Unit 15: Food
· name different kinds of food
· explain how to cook things
· give approximate meanings
· link ideas more clearly
· revision of linking words
· reporting verbs
· food and cooking
· prefixes
· food in the news
· con-fusion food
· How do you cook it?
· food-related news stories
· vague language




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